Joan Maragall i Gorina (1860-1911)
VISIONS I CANTS (1900)
Cant de Novembre
Desprès de la tempestat
El cant de la senyera
El comte Arnau
Els tres cants de la guerra Oda a Espanya
La fi d’en Serrallonga
La patria Nueva (1902)
La ciutat del
L’església cremada (1909)
Born in Barcelona the 10 October of 1860, being the fourth son and the sole boy of a rich family involved in textile businesses.
When he finished the higher secondary studies, and against the decision of his father, he refused to work into the familial factory.
The essential work of Maragall is write in Catalan language, but he also write in Castilian.
In 1881 he win the Natural Flower in the Jocs Florals (Floral Games are in Catalonia and in Provence, literary games) of Badalona with a poesy titled “Dins sa cambra” (Into her room).
The year 1884 he receive his degree in Law, starting since that time a crisis between his literary vacation and the familiar pressure to live in a more conventional life following the burgess principles.
The year 1891 he marries Clara Noble, with who he had 13 children.
Since 1892, Maragall develop a big activity as a promoter of the new modernity currents. This is shown in his collaboration with the leader cultural magazines of Modernisme (Art Nouveau) – l’Avenç, Catalonia and Luz -, and also in journals as “Diario de Barcelona” (Barcelona journal) and “La veu de Catalunya” (The voice of Catalonia). He also take part in other Floral games, in the Modernist Fests organized by Rusiñol in Sitges and in various prestigious literary circles as the Ateneu Barcelonès (Cultural center of Barcelona) of who he was the president.
The year 1894 he presents to the Jocs Florals of Barcelona the poem “La sardana” (wich is the national Catalan dance) wining the price of l’Englantina. In “Poesies“, he published the next year, it is possible to see his decadent tendency, also present on the poems he prepare for the Modernist Fests of Sitges he later overcame partially influenced by the vitality of Nietzche works.
In 1904, he present again a poesy “Glosa” (Gloss) to the Jocs Florals of Barcelona, being proclaimed Mestre en Gai Saber (Master in the art of troubadours), wining also the Flor Natural (the Natural Flower).
The pressure of the nascent Noucentisme (the cultural movement following the Art Nouveau in Catalonia), with the leadership of Eugeni d’Ors, force Maragall to an in deep reflection ended with a return to a most combative position following his first writings. Nevertheless he also develop a self-criticism rewriting he’s work for child “Tria” (Election) previously critiqued by Ors, and improving it to achieve the rectification of Ors.
Maragall was identified with a catholic traditionalism, following the ideas of la “Lliga Regionalista de Catalunya” (a strong Catalan national party at that time), but he never accepted to be an active politician refusing the offers of Enric Prat de la Riba and Francesc Cambò to be presented in the elections of the Parliament. This conservative tendency, also present in his writings, is the reason to classify him into a group of modernist writers – Víctor Català, Prudenci Bertrana, Puig i Ferrater – placing his characters into traditional and rural atmospheres.
The year 1906 he was very active in the “Congrés de la Llengua Catalana” (Catalan Language Congress) and later he was a founder of the “Secció Filològica de l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans” (Philological Section of the Catalan Studies Institute – The Catalan language Academy).
After the “Setmana Tràgica” (Tragic week – revolutionary period in Barcelona in 1909), he developed a criticism against the Catalan burgesses, due to the responsibility they had – in his mind – in that facts. This position is clearly exposed in his last work “Seqüencies” (Sequences).
In the year 1910 he wined the Fastenrath price in the Jocs Florals of Barcelona with “Enllà” (Over there). In 1911, the last year of his life, he published the mentioned “Seqüencies” in which he show a vital exaltation, coming back to a heterodox positions softened in previous writings. In this work he include the “Cant espiritual” (The spiritual song).
His work as translator to the Catalan language is very important. He translated Greek writers as Homer and Pindar, German writers as Goethe, Novalis, Nietzche, Schiller, Reinick and Wagner and French writers as Daudet and Lamartine.
Joan Maragall died in Barcelona the 20 de December of 1911.
|Maragall 1860-1911-1961||Arimany, Miquel||Miquel Arimany, SA||1963*|
|Sobre el Cant espiritual de Joan Maragall||Bachs, J.||Editorial Claret||2001|
|Maragall i Unamuno: els lligams d’una amistat||Bastons Vivanco, C.||Editorial Claret||1998|
|Maragall i la Setmana Tràgica||Benet, J.||Edicions 62||1992|
|La llum que ve del nord: Joan Maragall i la cultura alemanya||Bou, E.||Editorial Claret||1997|
|El Modernisme, Olot i Maragall||Busquets i Grabulosa, Ll.||Edicions El Bassegoda||1990|
|Gran enciclopèdia catalana||Diferents autors||Enciclopèdia Catalana|
|El mite laic de Joan Maragall||Gilli, G.||Edicions de la Magrana||1987|
|La prosa modernista: un concepte polièdric||Julià, Lluïsa||Lletra – UOC – Espai virtual de literatura catalana|
|Joan Maragall, esbós biogràfic||Maragall, G.||Edicions 62||1988|
|Paisatge i natura en Joan Maragall||Maragall i Mira, P.||Editorial
de la Literatura catalana, El Modernisme, vol 8.
Joaquim / de Riquer, Martí
|Historia de la literatura catalana, "Joan Maragall".||Nardi, Núria||Edicions 62 / Orbis||1984|
|Joan Maragall||Pla, J.||Destino||1994|
|La poètica de Joan Maragall||Pla i Arxé, R.||Editorial Claret||1999|
|La veu misteriosa. La teoria literària de Joan Maragall||Quintana, L.||Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat||1996|
|Dotze mestres||Serrahima, Maurici||Destino||1972|
|Joan Maragall||Serrahima, Maurici||Edicions 62||1990|
|La poesia de Joan Maragall||Terry, A.||Quaderns Crema||2000|
|El pensament de Joan Maragall||Trias, E||Edicions 62||1982|
|El primer modernismo literario catalán y sus fundamentos ideológicos||Valentí, Eduard||Editorial Ariel||1972|
Other Catalan Art Nouveau Writers:
Caterina Albert i Paradís Prudenci Bertrana Jaume Brossa i Roger Raimon Casellas i Dou Ignasi Iglesias i Pujades Pompeu Gener Adrià Gual i Queralt Hortensi Güell Antoni Isern Albert Llanas Joan Maragall i Gorina Alfons Maseras i Galtés Jaume Massó i Torrents Apel·les Mestres i Oñós
Rafael Nogueras i Ollé Miquel de Palol Josep Pin i Soler Josep Pons i Pagès Pere Prat i Gaballí Joan Puig i Ferrater Alexandre Riquer i Ynglada Santiago Rusiñol i Prats Joaquim Ruyra i Oms Maria Antònia Salvà Víctor Català (see Caterina Albert)
Plàcid Vidal i Rosich Jeroni Zanné i Rodríguez